Evaluating Blood
Tests from an
Oriental Perspective
EVALUATING BLOOD TESTS FROM AN ORIENTAL MEDICINE PERSPECTIVE

The following is a list of common serological tests. The “within optimum range values” are what is preferred,
however even results within this range can be problem indicators. In the left hand column you will find the
possible Western medical problems; in the right hand column you will find the common OM syndrome most
often found in combination with the medical problem and the elevation or depression of the blood chemistry.
Key:     ^  &  > =          increased; more, heightened; intensified
<          =          decreased; less, diminished
BLOOD
Red Blood Count (RBC)
The Red Blood cell is a carrier of oxygen through the haemoglobin it contains. The RBC value measures the
bloods oxygen carriage capability.
A stressed horse will have higher numbers of circulating red cells in its blood at the time of collection, due to
release of red cell reserves held in the spleen as a natural reaction to ‘fear’ or ‘stress’. This can elevate the
red cell concentration in the blood and mask a lower than normal range red cell count due to anaemia or blood
loss.
RBC
Increased in;
Western                                                     Oriental
B6 Anemia                                                 Spleen, Kidney Qi Xu
Respiratory Distress
(check TP)                                                Sp, Kid, Lung, Zi Xu, Yin Xu
Adrenal Hyperfunction                              Kid vaccuity
(check potassium)

RBC
Decreased in;
Iron Anemia (Check Hb)                              SpQi xu, Lu Qi Xu
Folic Acid Amenia (check MCV.MCH)          Sp qi xu
Hereditary Anemia                                      <Jing Qi, Sp qi xu
Liver Dysfunction (check SGPT)                  Liver Qi Stag, Li Heat
Renal Dysfunction (Check creatinine)            Kid Qi Xu  
Free radical pathology                                 <Wei Qi, Sp, Kid Qi Xu
Adrenal Hypofunction. Both Cortisol & Aldesterone are responsible for Eurythropoietin production in the
Kidneys which produces red blood cells.

Hematocrit (HTC)

Hematocrit represents the packed cell volume of red blood cells & is one of the most precise ways of
measuring the degree of anemia. When combined with serum iron & haemoglobin, it is a diagnostic tool for
determining iron excess or deficiency.

HTC
Increased in;
Dehydration                                                Kid Yin xu, Lu Yin xu, Ht bld xu
Respiratory distress                                     Kid/Lu Qi xu
Diarrhea                                                     Spleen/Colon damp heat,
Adrenal Hyperfunction                              Ki vaccuity

HTC
Decreased in;
Parasites                                                     Liv stagnation, Sp Qi Xu
Anemias                                                     Sp qi xu, Lu Qi xu, Liv Bld def        
Digestive inflammation                                 Spl Qi xu, Spl damp heat
Liver dysfunction                                        Liv stagnation, Liv heat
Renal dysfunction                                       Ki Qi Xu
Adrenal Hypofunction                               Ki Qi Xu


HEMOGLOBIN (HGB)
      Hemoglobin is the circulating iron containing pigment, which carries oxygen from the lungs to the
tissues. It is a measurement of how earth feeds metal. Hemoglobin’s ability to transport oxygen depends upon
pH and the presence of ferrous iron. Hemoglobin is the most abundant protein found within the red blood cell.
Hemoglobin level measures the amount of intracellular iron. Hemoglobin is synthesized in most bodily tissues
but the liver is the largest heme producing organ. (The muscles being fed by iron as well as glucose – liver).
In the bone marrow heme is transformed into hemoglobin. It is also a measurement of how the metal
manipulates the wood.
      It is important to note that infants have a higher hemoglobin level than adults. (growth/wood excess in
infants). Hemoglobin is considered along with hematocrit, red blood cells, MCV and MCH in determining
anemia. Ideally serum iron and ferritin will also be measured.

Hemoglobin
Increased In:
Asthma                                                      Spleen Qi Xu; Kid Qi Xu; Lu Qi Xu
Emphysema                                                Spleen Qi Xu; Kid Qi Xu; Lu Qi/Yin Xu
Adrenal Dysfunction                                 Kidney vaccuity
Diarrhea/Dehydration                                   Spleen Damp Heat; LI Damp Heat


Hemoglobin
Decreased In:
Parasites                                                    LI Stagnation; Li Stagnation; Sp Qi Xu
Adrenal Hypofunction                               Kid Qi Xu
Anemias                                                   <Wei Qi; Lu Qi Xu; Sp Qi Xu; Kid Xu; Jing Qi Xu
Digestive Inflammation                                Sp Qi Xu; Sp Damp Heat
Liver Dysfunction                                       Li Stagnation; Li Heat; Li Heat Rising
Renal Dysfunction                                       Kid Qi Xu]



B-12 and Folic Acid should be considered when dealing with inflamed nerve tissue or degeneration
(myalgias), blood sugar disorders. If sclera of the eyes are blue, need for iron.

MEAN CORPUSCULAR VOLUME (MCV)
MCV indicates the volume in cubic microns occupied by an average single red blood cell. MCV increases or
decreases with an increase or decrease in MCH is a finding for folic acid/B-12 deficiency (increase) or iron,
copper or B-6 (decrease).
Increased                                                 Decreased
Folic acid/B-12 anemia                                Parasites (check eosinophils)
Hereditary anemia                                       Iron anemia (check HGB)
                                                              Hypochlorhydria (check food allergies)
                                                              B-6 anemia; Vit. C anemia
                                                              Rheumatoid arthritis; Lead poisoning

MEAN CORPUSCULAR HEMOGLOBIN (MCH)
      MCH indicates the weight of hemoglobin in a single red blood cell. When MCH >s or <s with an > or <
in MCV it is an indicator for folic acid and/or B-12 deficiency. A < in MCH with a < in MCV will point to an
iron, B-6 or copper deficiency.

Increased                                                  Decreased
B-12/Folic Acid anemia                                Parasites
Hereditary anemia                                        Iron anemia, Copper deficiency
                                                              Rheumatoid Arthritis (check Alk Phos)
                                                              Toxic metal poisoning – lead, etc.

MEAN CORPUSCULAR HEMOGLOBIN CONCENTRATE
      Indicates the hemoglobin concentration per 100ml of packed red blood cells.

PLATELETS
      Platelets, or thrombocytes, are tiny bits of cytoplasm, much smaller than the red blood cells but lacking
a nucleus. They are round or biconcave disks and are normally about 30 to 40 times more numerous than the
white blood cells. They are produced as broken fragments of the cytoplasm of the giant cells of the bone
marrow – the megakaryocytes. The platelets’ primary function is to stop bleeding, with the help of certain
clotting proteins in the plasma. When tissue is damaged, the platelets aggregate in clumps to obstruct blood
flow through the smallest vessels, the capillaries. In the larger vessels, the clumps of platelets form a site
around which a blood clot forms, aided by a clot-promoting factor freed by the platelets as they break down.
In short, platelets are responsible in the blood clotting mechanism.


Platelets
Increased                                                  Decreased
Anemia                                                      Anemia
Liver Dysfunction; Lupus

QI

WHITE BLOOD CELLS (TOTAL WHITE BLOOD CELL COUNT)
      White Blood Cells are divided into two groups: 1) Granulocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils,
2) Nongranulocytes: lymphocytes and monocytes.

Increased                                                  Decreased
Mono (2nd/3rd wk)                                     Mono (1st wk/chronic)
Parasites                                                     Parasites
Adrenal Dysfunction                                  Adrenal Dysfunction
Infection (abscess)                                      Chronic Infection (viral/bacterial)
Asthma                                                       B-12, B-6, Folic Acid Anemia
                                                               Lupus Erythematosis (LDH^; SED^)
                                                               Monos^; Cholest^; Albumin<; HCT/HGB<;
                                                               Lymphs<; Platelets<

NEUTROPHILS
      Neutrophils are predominantly involved with phagocytosis. Neutrophil count is a way of determining the
strength of the immune system’s ability to fight infection.

Increased                                                   Decreased
Infection                                                     Infection
Adrenal Dysfunction;                                 Bone Marrow Depression
Pregnancy – Last Trimester                          Iron, B-12, Folic Acid

BANDS OR NON-SEGMENTED NEUTROPHILS
      Bands are the youngest form of neutrophils typically found in the peripheral blood. They increase during
acute infection with or without an increase in the total WBC. BAND measurement is useful in determining an
infectious process.

Increased                                                  Decreased
Acute Infection                                           Not considered a significant finding
LYMPHOCYTES
      Lymphocytes help to destroy toxic metabolites of protein metabolism. They originate from lymphoblasts
in the spleen, lymph, glands, bone marrow and thymus. They help to determine the stage of infection: acute;
recovery; chronic. Generally when lymphs are high there is some systemic toxicity; when lymphs are low
there is often chronic viral infection.
Increased                                                  Decreased
Infection                                                     infection /Parasites                                                           
Lupus
Anterior Pituitary Hypofunction                     Late Pregnancy
Adrenal Dysfunction                                  Adrenal Dysfunction
Hyperthyroidism                                          Immune Deficiency

MONOCYTES
      The monocyte is a young macrophage. The cells that line sinusoids in spleen, liver and lymph notes
derive from the same monocyte-macrophage pool. Normal macrophages have enzyme systems capable of
synthesizing and of degrading sphingolipids, compounds important in biologic membranes and especially
prominent in the nervous system. Monocytes are of primary importance in diagnosing mononucleosis. At the
onset of illness the WBC may be low but by the end of the first week the count will usually be between
10,000 - 30,000mm. There is an  increase in lymphocytes as well as monocytes which will often be over
15%.

Increased                                                  Decreased
Parasites                                                     Not Significant
Hepatitis (SGPT)
Acute Infection
EOSINOPHILS (EOS)
      Eosinophils are the mediators in acute inflammation and increase with allergies, some skin disease, after
radiation exposure and parasites. EOS are involved with the detoxification and removal of excess proteins. W/
elevation food sensitivities are important to consider. Elevated eosinophils are decreased with adrenal support.
It is important when regulating EOS that urinary and saliva pH is maintained between 6.0-6.5.

Increased                                                  Decreased
Allergies (IgE)                                             Not significant
Hayfever; Dermatological Disorders
Parasites (IgE/<Fe/MCH/MCV/HGB/HCT)
Hyperthyroidism (T3 Uptake)
Adrenal Cortical Hypofunction (K)
Anterior Pituitary Hypofunction (TSH)

BASOPHILS (BASO)
      Basophils contain enzymes called lysosomes. Lysosomes activate the release of histamine and hyaluronic
acid. Basophils release heparin essential to fighting inflammation and preventing clotting of the blood in
inflamed tissue. Hyalouronic acid is an interstitial adhesive/protective factor whose production is associated
with cortisol output.

Increased                                                      Decreased
Parasites (EOS)                                              not significant
Flu; Inflammation
Hypothyroidism (T3/T4)
Chronic Hemolytic Anemia (RBC/HGB)



WATER: KIDNEY/BLADDER

SODIUM
      Sodium levels alone are of limited diagnostic use. It is important to compare the relative measurement of
sodium vs. potassium. Excessive sodium levels implies heat in the kidney. Low levels of serum sodium imply
Kidney Qi Deficiency.
Increased                                                     Decreased
Adrenal Cortical Hyperfunction
                   Adrenal Cortical Hypofunction
Congestive Heart Failure                                  Diabetes; Diarrhea
Diabetes;                                                        Excessive perspiration from exercise
Use of synthetic steroids/Pred/Dex

POTASSIUM
      Potassium levels can indicate in which general direction the body’s pH is going. Increased levels of
potassium are indicative of acidosis while decreased levels are indicative of alkalosis. With chronic potassium
elevation one has to consider immunodepression and/or inflammation.
Increased                                                      Decreased
Adrenal Hypofunction  
                                 Adrenal Hyperfunction
Asthma, Emphysema                                       Diuretics; Diarrhea]
Renal Dysfunction                                           Hypertension
                                                                  Use of Synthetic steroids/Pred/Dex

CHLORIDES
      Sodium, potassium and chloride ions surround the cell plasma membrane. Comparing the measurements
of these three ions one can get general information on the basic functioning of the kidney and the relationship
of the water and the earth elements. Generally, elevated chlorides will represent Heat and decreased chlorides
will represent Deficiency within the water elements.

Increased                                                      Decreased
CO2 deficiency                                               CO2 excess
Adrenal Hyperfunction                                  Adrenal Hypofunction
Hyperaparathyroidism                                      Respiratory distress
Dehydration                                                    Diabetes
Salicylate toxicity                                            Renal Dysfunction

BLOOD UREA NITROGEN (BUN)
      Urea is formed almost entirely by the liver from protein metabolism in the tissues. The rate of urea
production is accelerated by a diet high in animal proteins and chronic tissue damage. It is believed that more
than 50% of the kidney must be destroyed before serum urea levels are significantly elevated. Elevated BUN
with normal creatinine usually signals a non-renal cause for uremia.

Increased                                                      Decreased
Renal Dysfx; Heart Failure                               Celiac Sprue; Advanced Acidosis
Liv/Biliary Dysfx; Rheum. Arthritis

CREATININE
      Creatinine clearance is a good measurement of glomerular function. It measures the rate of excretion by
the kidneys of metabolically produced creatinine. Blood Creatinine rises when renal function declines. With
severe renal impairment, urea levels continue to climb, but creatinine values plateau.

Increased                                                      Decreased
Reduced blood flow to kidney                          Not significant
Urethral obstruction/stones
Shock, Blood Loss, Dehydration, Burns
Muscle trauma; Flu; Late pregnancy

URIC ACID
      Uric Acid is the chief end product of purine metabolism. Purines are constituents of nucleic acids. Most
uric acid is synthesized in the liver, in a reaction requiring the enzyme xanthine oxidase. Uric acid travels
through the blood to the kidneys, where filtration, absorption and secretion will affect uric acid excretion.
Organ meats, legumes and yeast are especially high in purines.
      Uremia can be described as symptoms and physical abnormalities that result from the kidneys’ failure to
remove nitrogenous waste products normally excreted in the urine. The toxic effects of uremia affect
virtually all human organs. The most common symptoms are high blood pressure, swelling (edema) of the
ankles, nausea, vomiting and weight loss. Anemia is almost always present because high blood levels of urea,
one of the nitrogenous substances, shortens the life span of red blood cells. Other symptoms may include
irritation of the heart sac (pericarditis), bleeding, muscle twitches and itching (pruritus). In the later stages,
uremia causes agitation alternating with stupor, convulsions, coma, and ultimately death. Analysis of blood
chemistries show elevated levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid, phosphorus and hydrogen ion.

Increased                                                      Decreased
Liv/Kid Dysfx.                                                Pregnancy
Rheumatoid Arthritis                                       Anemia – B-12
Arteriosclerosis; Heart Disease

PROGESTERONE
      Progesterone is secreted by the corpus luteum of the ovaries and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex
in both males and females. It prepares the endometrium to received a fertilized ovum and is necessary for the
maintenance of early pregnancy.
Increased                                                     Decreased
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy                          Ovarian Tumor/Hypofunction
Pregnancy                                                     Anterior Pituitary Hypofunction (TSH)

OVARIAN HYPOFUNCTION
Increased                                                     Decreased
Sodium; Chloride; Cholesterol                          Calcium; Phosphorous; Thyroid Binding Globulin

FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE (FSH)
      The ovary secretes estrogens and progesterone under the influence of FSH, which is controlled by
hypothalamic releasing factors and stimulated by the pituitary hormones. Estrogens are secreted by ovarian
follicular cells in the first half of the menstrual cycle, and by the corpus luteum during the luteal phase and
pregnancy.

Increased                                                      Decreased
Menopause/Post Menopause                            Anterior Pituitary Hypofx. (TSH)
                                                                 Ovarian Tumour
LUTEINIZING HORMONE (LH)
      LH and FSH control the function of the hormones of the ovaries and testis. High LH levels inhibit
estrogen and stimulate progesterone secretion.

Increased                                                      Decreased
Hyperthyroidism                                             Anterior Pituitary Hypofx.
Polycystic Ovaries                                          Benign Prostate Hypertrophy
Menopause/Perimenopause                               Ovarian tumour

WOOD: LIVER/GALLBLADDER

      The liver contains complex parenchymal cells which perform multiple diverse functions essential to life.
Hepatocytes have the unique ability to regenerate as well as the capacity to respond to increased metabolic
demands. The liver directly receives, processes and stores materials absorbed from the digestive tract such as
amino acids, carbohydrates, fatty acids, cholesterol and vitamins and is able to release metabolites of these
compounds on demand. The liver synthesizes plasma proteins such as albumin, globulin, clotting factors and
transport proteins. These factors influence homeostasis, since binding proteins modulate the circulating total
concentrations of calcium and magnesium while albumin concentrations regulate osmotic pressure and thus
influence the fluid dynamics between the blood and the tissues. The liver is the main organ of detoxification
and is the site of metabolic conversion of endogenous and exogenous compounds. The liver also synthesizes
bile acids from cholesterol and secretes these compounds from the hepatocytes into the intestine. This
generates bile flow and facilitates the emulsification and absorption of fats. The liver is also a major site of
catabolism of thyroid, steroid and other hormones. The liver helps to regulate plasma hormone levels. Last,
but not least, the liver responds to multiple hormonal and neural stimuli to regulate the blood glucose
concentration and contributes to steadying the body’s immune system. The liver is truly THE GENERAL.

LACTIC DEHYDROGENASE (LDH)
      LDH is found in the blood as well as in all tissues. It represents a group of enzymes involved in
carbohydrate metabolism. LDH is an enzyme which assists in the conversion of Pyruvate (pyruvic acid) to
lactate or lactic acid in the anaerobic glycolysis of glucose. Lactic acid can be reconverted to pyruvate with
the enzymatic assistance of LDH, enter into the mitochondrion and be transformed to ATP for cellular
energy. LDH is widely distributed with high concentrations in the heart, musculoskeletal system, liver,
kidney, brain and red blood cells. The measurement of total LDH is therefore a non-specific index of cellular
damage.

      There are laboratories which do an electrophoresis process which will assess the 5 different isoenzymes
of LDH
      #1 – measures heart tissue damage – 10 – 34% of total LDH
      #2 – measures heart, lymph and erythrocyte damage – 3 - 45% of total LDH
      #3 – measures pulmonary, spleen, adrenal and kidney – 13 – 27% of total LDH
      #4 – measures hepatic and prostate and uterus – 2 – 14% of total LDH
      #5 – measures hepatic tissue damage – 3 – 15% of total LDH

NOTES ABOUT LDH ISOENZYMES:
      LDH Isoenzyme #1 – with an infection and an elevation of total WBC this will be elevated.
      LDH Isoenzyme #1 – with a decreased TSH (associated with thyroid medication) will be mildly elevated
(fire/thyroid correlation)
      LDH Isoenzyme #5 A lowered LDH #5 may also be indicative of toxic metal poisoning.

LDH
INCREASED IN:
      Any increase in LDH is an implication that there is some tissue damage somewhere in the body. If one
chooses to do an electrophoresis Isoenzyme test one can determine which tissue is undergoing a destructive
process.

LDH
DECREASED IN:
Sometimes with Hypoglycemia

Generally it is believed that increased LDH is representative of excessive acidity and decreased LDH is
representative of excessive alkalinity.

TOTAL PROTEIN
      All cells manufacture proteins, different proteins characterizing different cell types. All human proteins
are constructed from a mere 20 amino acids, but variations in chain length, amino acid sequence and
incorporated constituents combine to make possible an almost infinite number of different protein molecules.
Amino acids enter the body from dietary sources. These amino acids are rapidly distributed to tissue cells,
which promptly incorporate them into proteins. Protein synthesis and degradation occur continuously, at a
rate of approximately 400g. daily. Each day about 20-30g of protein is irreversibly degraded; this is the
minimum amount of protein that must be ingested to maintain a metabolic nitrogen balance.

Increased                                                      Decreased
Acidosis; Low HCL                                        Gastritis; Colitis, etc.; Malnutrition
Dehydration                                                   Hyperthyroidism
Amino Acid Def.

ALBUMIN
      A globular protein which contributes to approximately 60% of the total plasma proteins. It is produced in
the liver and is dependent on the intake of amino acids. Albumin binds Bilirubin, free fatty acids and
transports and stores numerous metabolic constituents such as thyroxine, cortisol, calcium, magnesium and
amino acids. Albumin is responsible for about 80% of the colloid-osmotic pressure between blood and tissue
fluids. When albumin is diminished, osmotic pressure is disturbed. A low albumin combined with elevated
SGPT and GGTP indicates significant liver dysfunction.

Increased                                                     Decreased
Hypothyroidism                                              Hyperthyroidism
Dehydration                                                    Liver/Kidney Dysfunction; Pregnancy
                                                                  Digestive inflammation; Hypochlorhydria
Benign Hypertension; Congestive Heart Failure

GLOBULIN
      A globulin is a protein that is insoluble in pure water, in contrast to an albumin which is soluble. Human
blood serum contains several globulins that differ in molecular size, amino acid composition, solubility. Total
serum globulin increases during recovery from infection. Such beta-globulins as transferring transport iron,
heme, and less often, copper and zinc throughout the body.

Increased                                                     Decreased
                                                                  Malnutrition/ Burns; Cirrhosis; Pregnancy
                                                                 Acute Hepatitis/Liver Dysfx.; Cong Heart Failure

SERUM GLUTAMIC OXALOACETIC (SGOT)
TRANSAMINASEASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE (AST)
      SGOT is an enzyme found in the cytoplasm of liver, kidney, myocardial and skeletal muscle cells.
Following in injury, infection, inflammation, concentrations of SGOT will > within 10 hours. Within 4-6
days, SGOT levels should resume normal levels. SGOT measurements give information on liver/heart
relationship.

Increased                                                     Decreased
Hepatitis (SGPT, GGTP)
Mononucleosis; Flu (WBC)                              B-6 deficiency
Hypertension; Diabetes (Glucose)
Congestive Heart Failure (BUN^ /SGPT^; MCV^; All. Phos^; CO2<; Albumin<)
Liver, Kidney, Pancreatic Dysfunction
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Pericarditis; Myocarditis (LDH>; EOS>/ Neutrophils<)


SERUM GLUTAMIC PYRUVIC TRANSAMINANSEALANINE  (SGPT) AMINOTRANSVERASE (ALT)
      Most concentrated in the liver and in lesser amounts in the kidney, heart and skeletal system. Increased
exercise can increase SGOT while SGPT will remain stable. SGPT is principally used to measure liver
damage. SGPT is more reliable to measure chronic cellular damage whereas SGOT is more sensitive to acute
damage. An individual with viral hepatitis will have a considerably higher SGPT/SGOT than one who has
recently had an MI or cancer. (This is in general a measurement of heat and/or stagnation). When using
SGPT to dx. Gallbladder problems, remember to test urine and Bilirubin. Often SGPT and SGOT will be
normal yet the GGTP will be elevated in gallbladder dx.

Increased                                                                    Decreased
Mononucleosis/Influenza                                               B-6 deficiency
Hepatitis (GGTP^; Alk. Phos^; Bilirubin^
      Globulin^; Cholesterol<; Mb.<;
Platelets<; Albumin<)
Choleycystitis (SED^; WBC^; WBC^; Alk. Phos^
      LDH^; Protein^; Bilirubin^; Iron<; Cholesterol<;
RBC<; HCT/HGB<;Uric Acid<; Phos.<; Mg.<
Acute MI; Myocarditis
Renal Dysfunction; Rheumatoid Arthritis

ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE
      A high content of alkaline phosphatase is found in the intestinal mucosa, live and bone. An elevation of
Alk. Phos. is found in both hepatic dysfunction and osteoblastic bone lesions. It is therefore useful in
determining relationship between water and wood. An elevated Alk. Phos. in children is most often due to
excessive bone growth activity. It is most commonly elevated in Liver Stagnation with biliary tract
congestion. Exceedingly low levels of Alk. Phos. are most commonly found in patients with depressed zinc
levels. Patients with liver/gallbladder stagnation/obstruction often have higher serum Alk. Phos. than the
individual with hepatocellular disorders such as simple Liver Heat. Steroidal drugs and birth control pills will
often increase Alk. Phos.

Increased                                                              Decreased
Biliary/liver congestion (SGPT, GGTP)                     Hypothyroidism; Hypoparathyroidism
Hepatitis; Mono; Parasites (EOS)                                 Digestive Incompetence (protein/fat)
Herpes Zoster; Hyperthyroidism                                   Zinc Deficiency; Folic Acid Anemia
Osteoporosis; Rheumatoid Arthritis
GAMMA GLUTAMYL TRANSPEPTIDE (GGPT)
      GGPT is often the first enzyme to be elevated with liver dysfunction. The elevation continues for as long
as hepatic cellular damage persists. It is a sensitive indicator of biliary obstruction. It is interesting to note that
elevated Bilirubin in the urine will be evident long before SGOT , SGPT or Alk. Phosphatase become elevated.
GGPT is often high with severe alcoholism and correlates with six or more alcoholic drinks daily.

Increased                                                    Decreased
Biliary Obstruction; Alcoholism (SGOT;SGPT) not significant

BILIARY OBSTRUCTION
Increased                                                    Decreased
GGPT; SGPT; SGOT; Alk. Phos.; WBC         Vitamin A & K levels
Bilirubin; Triglycerides; Cholesterol; LDH

TOTAL BILIRUBIN
      Bilirubin is the end product of the breakdown of hemoglobin by the liver, spleen and bone marrow. The
liver transforms Bilirubin to a form that is then excreted through the biliary system or the kidneys. An
increase in Bilirubin is responsible for various types of jaundice. Bilirubin helps to rule biliary obstruction in or
out. When direct Bilirubin is simultaneously elevated with GGTP and SGPT biliary obstruction is likely. Total
Bilirubin is a combination of direct and indirect Bilirubin.

Increased                                                      Decreased
Hepatitis; Mononucleosis                                 Iron Anemia
Liver/Biliary Dysfunction


TRIGLYCERIDES
      Triglycerides are esters of glycerol and fatty acids. Elevated triglycerides will often indicate poor
utilization of fatty acids. Decreased triglycerides will indicate poor release of fatty acids. Typically, when the
triglycerides are elevated there is primarily Damp Heat in the Spleen. When cholesterol is elevated there is
more commonly Liver Stagnation.

Increased                                                       Decreased
Liver-Biliary dysfunction                                   Auto immune dysfunction
Protein malnutrition
Free Radical Pathology

FIRE: HEART/PERICARDIUM/SMALL INTESTINE

SEDIMENTATION RATE
The Sedimentation Rate helps to determine inflammation and/or destruction within a disease process. It helps
in following the course of an established condition and also signals the onset of inflammation. Fibrogen
increases the Sed. Rate, while an increase in albumin decreases the Sed. Rate. The liver is the seat of albumin
synthesis. A damaged liver, therefore, can contribute to low albumin with a corresponding increased Sed.
Rate.

Increased                                                         Decreased
Inflammation                                                     Not significant

THYROID
Thyroid Hormones
      Control of oxygen consumption is the most conspicuous biologic effect of the thyroid hormones, a
physiologic variable measured in simplest fashion by the basal metabolic rate. Thyroid hormones also
influence carbohydrate and protein metabolism, and the mobilization of electrolytes, and the conversion of
carotene to vitamin A. (wood/fire). Although the mechanism is not fully apparent, thyroid hormones are
essential for development of the CNS and the thyroid deficient infant suffers irreversible mental damage. The
thyroid deficient adult may have slowed deep tendon reflexes.
      Thyroid hormones affect synthesis and metabolism of fats. Abnormalities within the endocrine system
may be reflected in altered lipid levels. In hyperthyroidism, degradation and excretion increase more than
synthesis, resulting in low levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. Hypothyroidism slows catabolism more than
it affects synthesis, and hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Hypothyroidism secondary to
pituitary failure, however does not cause lipids to rise. In an obviously hyypothyroid patient, a normal serum
cholesterol level should direct attention to the pituitary. (Is the problem wood or water). Cholesterol levels
will often drop within 3 weeks after thyroid medication.

      The thyroid gland synthesizes its hormones from iodine and the essential amino acid tyrosine. Most of
the body's iodine enters through the alimentary tract as iodide, but under certain circumstances, the lungs and
skin may be portals of entry. Of the iodine that enters the body, approximately one third enters the thyroid
gland and two thirds leaves the body in urine.

Enzymes oxidize iodide to organic iodine, which is incorporated into monoiodotyrosine and diiodotyrosine.
These one and two iodine containing compounds are building blocks for the active thyroid hormones T4
which has four iodine molecules, and triiodothyronine T3, which has three.

T-3 UPTAKE
Useful to dx. Hyperthyroidism.

Increased                                                        Decreased
Hyperthyroidism                                               Hypothyroidism; Pregnancy
Protein Malnutrition                                          Estrogens/Anti-Ovulatory Drugs
Renal Dysfunction                                             Triiodothyronine Rx. for Hypothyroidism
                                                                  Propylthioouracil Rx. for Hyperthyroidism

T-4 THYROXINE
      T-4 is a product of the thyroid follicular cell. It influences the entire body's metabolism. In primary
hypothyroidism T-4 levels are usually low. In many cases of sub-clinical hypothyroidism (chk. Daily
temperature), T-4 levels may be low normal.

Increased                                                        Decreased
Hyperthyroidism                                               Hypothyroidism, Renal Dysfunction
Liver Cirrhosis                                                 Diabetes; Anterior Pituitary Dysfunction
Pregnancy                                                        Protein Malnutrition

THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE (TSH)
      TSH is secreted from the pituitary gland. It regulates the uptake of iodine as well as the synthesis and
secretion of the thyroid hormones. TSH is influenced by hypothalamic stimulation as well as T4
concentration.

Increased                                                       Decreased
Hypothyroidism                                                Hyperthyroidism
Liver Cirrhosis                                                Anterior Pituitary Hypofunction

HYPERTHYROIDISM
Increased                                                    Decreased
T4, T3 Uptake; Glucose; BUN                       Basophils; Albumin; Calcium
Alkaline Phos; Eosinophils                                Total Protein; HCT; HGB; Iron
                                                                  Magnesium; Cholesterol; Triglycerides

HYPOTHYROIDISM
Increased                                                      Decreased
LDH, Calcium, Magnesium                               T3 Uptake; T4; HCT; HGB; Iron
Basophils; Cholesterol; Triglycerides                 Sodium

Pituitary/Hypothalmus
      The thyroid produces hormones upon stimulation by the pituitary hormone variously called thyrotropin
or thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Pituitary production of TSH (Kidney energy) follows stimulation by a
hypothalamic protein called thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), which responds to activity levels of T3 and
T4 in the blood passing through the hypothalamus. When hormone levels are low TRH provokes TSH
secretion, which then accelerates all aspects of thyroidal iodine metabolism and hormone production.

EARTH: STOMACH/SPLEEN

GLUCOSE
      This test is a useful indicator of glucose metabolism disorders.
      Glucose represents the synthesis of carbohydrates and is the form in which carbohydrate is supplied to
the cell from body fluids. In other words, glucose is the essence (yin) of carbohydrate metabolism. Insulin,
of particular importance in the transport of glucose into the fat cell, lowers serum glucose while adrenal and
pituitary hormones tend to elevate it through their effects on the liver. The thyroid gland, on the other hand,
by helping with the selective activity of the intestinal tract for sugar, increases blood sugar if it is overactive
and decreases blood sugar if it is under-active.
      Since brain cells cannot derive energy from anaerobic metabolism of glucose, they are most vulnerable
to hypoglycemia (enter – brain fog”)

Glucose Increased
Diabetes                                                           Damp Heat in Spleen; Liv. Stag.
Acute/Chronic Pancreatitis                                Damp Heat in Spleen
Digestive Inflammation                                  Damp Heat in Spleen
Digestive Inflammation                                  Damp heat in Spleen
Hyperthyroidism                                               Damp Heat in Spleen; Liv. Stag.
Pregnancy                                                        Damp Heat in Spleen
Adrenal Cortical Hyperfunction                     Kidney Yang Def
Use of synthetic steroids/Pred/Dex
Chronic Renal Dysfunction                                Damp Heat in Kidney
Cardiac Dysfunction                                         Damp Heat in Heart

Glucose Decreased
Hypothyroidism                                                Spleen Qi Xu
Malnutrition                                                      Spleen Qi Xu
Pregnancy                                                        Spleen Qi Xu
Hypochlorhydria                                               Spleen Qi Xu
Liver Dysfunction                                              Spleen Qi Xu; Wind Attacking Earth
Hypoglycemia                                                   Spleen Qi Xu; Kidney Qi Xu
Anterior Pituitary Dysfunction                            Kidney Qi Xu
Adrenal Cortical Hypofunction                      Kidney Qi Xu

Diabetic Blood Profile
Increased                                                            Decreased
Glucose; Basophiles; Creatinine                                    Calcium; Insulin; Lymphocytes; T-cells
GGTP, Triglycerides; Cholesterol                                  Blood pH; Phosphorous; Chloride
BUN; Uric Acid; Alk. Phos & LDH – normal-^            Albumin & Magnesium – normal to <

It is interesting to note that with diabetes or pre-diabetic condition, the serum triglycerides will often be higher
than the serum cholesterol. In Oriental Medicine this would relate to the predominant problem being Damp
Heat in the Spleen as opposed to “pure” Liver Stagnation.


Increased                                                 Decreased
Growth Hormone^                                           Glucose <
Insulin^                                                 LDH – normal to <
      A hypoglycemic may display any or all of the following symptoms: fatigue, dizziness, headache,
irritability, depression, anxiety, tightness in the chest, sweet cravings, confusion, night sweats, weakness in
the legs, nervous habits, insomnia and an assortment of pains. These symptoms relate to various syndromes,
the most obvious being Spleen Qi Xu, Kid. Qi Xu and Liver Stag.

NOTATIONS
      A low normal glucose combined with a low normal LDH is reason to suspect hypoglycemia. In Oriental
Medicine this would be associated with Spleen Qi Xu. Hypochlorhydria (St. Def.) and biliary stasis (Liver
Stagnation) are prominent syndromes in most cases of hypoglycemia. Low blood pressure (Kid. Qi Xu) is
also common amongst hypoglycemics.
      With blood sugar problems, a craving for sweets is common. Headaches are commonly associated with
chronic low glucose:
A flat glucose curve is common with learning disabilities and “personality disorders” or disturbed Shen.
Heavy metals may also be the culprit here.
      Food allergies may often cause blood sugar fluctuations.
      If LDH and glucose are low and such symptoms as hypochlorhydria, (Sp. Qi Xu) hypotension and
adrenal fatigue, (Kid. Qi Xu); and acidic urine and saliva (Stagnation) one must rule our food allergies.
Avoidance of allergens, simple sugars is a must.

METAL: LUNG/LARGE INTESTINE

CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2)
      In the combustion of food, oxygen is used and carbon dioxide is given off. The rate of oxygen
consumption indicates the energy expenditure of an organism, or its metabolic rate. The metabolic rate of any
given animal at any given time is highly variable and is influenced by many diverse factors, including amount
of muscular activity; quality of diet; presence or absence of digestion, lactation or pregnancy; time of day or
year; period of the menstrual cycle and emotional state. Although most CO@ is lost through the lungs, some
is converted to bicarbonate. This bicarbonate is part of the alkaline reserve available for neutralization of
acids. Arterial blood has a lower total CO2 than venous blood.

Increased                                                                Decreased
Fever; Respiratory Distress/Alkalosis                            Dehydration; Acidosis
Adrenal Hyperfunction                                              Renal Dysfunction

TOTAL IRON
      Iron is largely absorbed across the mucosa of the duodenum and proximal jejunum. Gastric juice plays
an important but not thoroughly understood role in promoting absorption. The low pH of gastric juice makes
iron more available from iron-rich foods.

Increased                                                                    Decreased
Pernicious Anemia/B-12                                               Iron Anemia; Parasitic Infection
Liver/Kidney Dysfunction                                              Liver/Kidney Dysfunction; Gastrointestinal Dx.
(peptic ulcer;)

CALCIUM
      Calcium is absorbed from the upper part of the small intestine. Absorption depends upon the relative
acidity of the intestinal contents and the amount of phosphate present. Calcium absorption is influenced by
parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and Vitamin D.

Increased                                                                 Decreased
Hyperparathyroidism                                                    Hypoparathyroidism]
Ovarian Hyperfunction                                              Ovarian Hypofunction
Epilepsy                                                                       Osteoporosis; Acidosis; Hypochlorydria

PHOSPHOROUS
      Phosphorous plays an important role in the hemostasis of calcium and in reactions involving
carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. The chemical energy of the body is stored in “high energy phosphate:
compounds. Calcium and phosphorous dynamics are largely regulated by the effects of parathyroid hormone
on bone and on urinary excretion and the effects of vitamin D metabolites on intestinal absorption and on
bone. Parathyroid hormone causes increased resorption of both calcium and phosphorous from bone; it
suppresses urinary calcium, causing serum calcium levels to rise and serum phosphate levels to fall. Vitamin
D stimulates absorption of calcium and phosphorous from intestinal contents, and accelerates the turnover of
both minerals in the bone.

Increased                                                    Decreased
Renal/Liver Dysfx.                                                        Digestive Dysfx; <HCL
Ovarian Hyperfunction                                              Ovarian Hypofunction
Fractures; Increased Vit. D levels                                  Diabetes; Decreased Vit. D. levels



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