Evaluating Blood Tests from an Oriental Perspective
EVALUATING BLOOD TESTS FROM AN ORIENTAL MEDICINE PERSPECTIVE
The following is a list of common serological tests. The “within optimum range values” are what is preferred, however even results within this range can be problem indicators. In the left hand column you will find the possible Western medical problems; in the right hand column you will find the common OM syndrome most often found in combination with the medical problem and the elevation or depression of the blood chemistry. Key: ^ & > = increased; more, heightened; intensified < = decreased; less, diminished BLOOD Red Blood Count (RBC) The Red Blood cell is a carrier of oxygen through the haemoglobin it contains. The RBC value measures the bloods oxygen carriage capability. A stressed horse will have higher numbers of circulating red cells in its blood at the time of collection, due to release of red cell reserves held in the spleen as a natural reaction to ‘fear’ or ‘stress’. This can elevate the red cell concentration in the blood and mask a lower than normal range red cell count due to anaemia or blood loss. RBC Increased in; Western Oriental B6 Anemia Spleen, Kidney Qi Xu Respiratory Distress (check TP) Sp, Kid, Lung, Zi Xu, Yin Xu Adrenal Hyperfunction Kid vaccuity (check potassium)
RBC Decreased in; Iron Anemia (Check Hb) SpQi xu, Lu Qi Xu Folic Acid Amenia (check MCV.MCH) Sp qi xu Hereditary Anemia <Jing Qi, Sp qi xu Liver Dysfunction (check SGPT) Liver Qi Stag, Li Heat Renal Dysfunction (Check creatinine) Kid Qi Xu Free radical pathology <Wei Qi, Sp, Kid Qi Xu Adrenal Hypofunction. Both Cortisol & Aldesterone are responsible for Eurythropoietin production in the Kidneys which produces red blood cells.
Hematocrit represents the packed cell volume of red blood cells & is one of the most precise ways of measuring the degree of anemia. When combined with serum iron & haemoglobin, it is a diagnostic tool for determining iron excess or deficiency.
HTC Decreased in; Parasites Liv stagnation, Sp Qi Xu Anemias Sp qi xu, Lu Qi xu, Liv Bld def Digestive inflammation Spl Qi xu, Spl damp heat Liver dysfunction Liv stagnation, Liv heat Renal dysfunction Ki Qi Xu Adrenal Hypofunction Ki Qi Xu
HEMOGLOBIN (HGB) Hemoglobin is the circulating iron containing pigment, which carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. It is a measurement of how earth feeds metal. Hemoglobin’s ability to transport oxygen depends upon pH and the presence of ferrous iron. Hemoglobin is the most abundant protein found within the red blood cell. Hemoglobin level measures the amount of intracellular iron. Hemoglobin is synthesized in most bodily tissues but the liver is the largest heme producing organ. (The muscles being fed by iron as well as glucose – liver). In the bone marrow heme is transformed into hemoglobin. It is also a measurement of how the metal manipulates the wood. It is important to note that infants have a higher hemoglobin level than adults. (growth/wood excess in infants). Hemoglobin is considered along with hematocrit, red blood cells, MCV and MCH in determining anemia. Ideally serum iron and ferritin will also be measured.
Hemoglobin Decreased In: Parasites LI Stagnation; Li Stagnation; Sp Qi Xu Adrenal Hypofunction Kid Qi Xu Anemias <Wei Qi; Lu Qi Xu; Sp Qi Xu; Kid Xu; Jing Qi Xu Digestive Inflammation Sp Qi Xu; Sp Damp Heat Liver Dysfunction Li Stagnation; Li Heat; Li Heat Rising Renal Dysfunction Kid Qi Xu]
B-12 and Folic Acid should be considered when dealing with inflamed nerve tissue or degeneration (myalgias), blood sugar disorders. If sclera of the eyes are blue, need for iron.
MEAN CORPUSCULAR VOLUME (MCV) MCV indicates the volume in cubic microns occupied by an average single red blood cell. MCV increases or decreases with an increase or decrease in MCH is a finding for folic acid/B-12 deficiency (increase) or iron, copper or B-6 (decrease). IncreasedDecreased Folic acid/B-12 anemia Parasites (check eosinophils) Hereditary anemia Iron anemia (check HGB) Hypochlorhydria (check food allergies) B-6 anemia; Vit. C anemia Rheumatoid arthritis; Lead poisoning
MEAN CORPUSCULAR HEMOGLOBIN (MCH) MCH indicates the weight of hemoglobin in a single red blood cell. When MCH >s or <s with an > or < in MCV it is an indicator for folic acid and/or B-12 deficiency. A < in MCH with a < in MCV will point to an iron, B-6 or copper deficiency.
Increased Decreased B-12/Folic Acid anemia Parasites Hereditary anemia Iron anemia, Copper deficiency Rheumatoid Arthritis (check Alk Phos) Toxic metal poisoning – lead, etc.
MEAN CORPUSCULAR HEMOGLOBIN CONCENTRATE Indicates the hemoglobin concentration per 100ml of packed red blood cells.
PLATELETS Platelets, or thrombocytes, are tiny bits of cytoplasm, much smaller than the red blood cells but lacking a nucleus. They are round or biconcave disks and are normally about 30 to 40 times more numerous than the white blood cells. They are produced as broken fragments of the cytoplasm of the giant cells of the bone marrow – the megakaryocytes. The platelets’ primary function is to stop bleeding, with the help of certain clotting proteins in the plasma. When tissue is damaged, the platelets aggregate in clumps to obstruct blood flow through the smallest vessels, the capillaries. In the larger vessels, the clumps of platelets form a site around which a blood clot forms, aided by a clot-promoting factor freed by the platelets as they break down. In short, platelets are responsible in the blood clotting mechanism.
NEUTROPHILS Neutrophils are predominantly involved with phagocytosis. Neutrophil count is a way of determining the strength of the immune system’s ability to fight infection.
IncreasedDecreased Infection Infection Adrenal Dysfunction; Bone Marrow Depression Pregnancy – Last Trimester Iron, B-12, Folic Acid
BANDS OR NON-SEGMENTED NEUTROPHILS Bands are the youngest form of neutrophils typically found in the peripheral blood. They increase during acute infection with or without an increase in the total WBC. BAND measurement is useful in determining an infectious process.
Increased Decreased Acute Infection Not considered a significant finding LYMPHOCYTES Lymphocytes help to destroy toxic metabolites of protein metabolism. They originate from lymphoblasts in the spleen, lymph, glands, bone marrow and thymus. They help to determine the stage of infection: acute; recovery; chronic. Generally when lymphs are high there is some systemic toxicity; when lymphs are low there is often chronic viral infection. Increased Decreased Infection infection /Parasites Lupus Anterior Pituitary Hypofunction Late Pregnancy Adrenal Dysfunction Adrenal Dysfunction Hyperthyroidism Immune Deficiency
MONOCYTES The monocyte is a young macrophage. The cells that line sinusoids in spleen, liver and lymph notes derive from the same monocyte-macrophage pool. Normal macrophages have enzyme systems capable of synthesizing and of degrading sphingolipids, compounds important in biologic membranes and especially prominent in the nervous system. Monocytes are of primary importance in diagnosing mononucleosis. At the onset of illness the WBC may be low but by the end of the first week the count will usually be between 10,000 - 30,000mm. There is an increase in lymphocytes as well as monocytes which will often be over 15%.
Increased Decreased Parasites Not Significant Hepatitis (SGPT) Acute Infection EOSINOPHILS (EOS) Eosinophils are the mediators in acute inflammation and increase with allergies, some skin disease, after radiation exposure and parasites. EOS are involved with the detoxification and removal of excess proteins. W/ elevation food sensitivities are important to consider. Elevated eosinophils are decreased with adrenal support. It is important when regulating EOS that urinary and saliva pH is maintained between 6.0-6.5.
BASOPHILS (BASO) Basophils contain enzymes called lysosomes. Lysosomes activate the release of histamine and hyaluronic acid. Basophils release heparin essential to fighting inflammation and preventing clotting of the blood in inflamed tissue. Hyalouronic acid is an interstitial adhesive/protective factor whose production is associated with cortisol output.
SODIUM Sodium levels alone are of limited diagnostic use. It is important to compare the relative measurement of sodium vs. potassium. Excessive sodium levels implies heat in the kidney. Low levels of serum sodium imply Kidney Qi Deficiency. Increased Decreased Adrenal Cortical Hyperfunction Adrenal Cortical Hypofunction Congestive Heart Failure Diabetes; Diarrhea Diabetes; Excessive perspiration from exercise Use of synthetic steroids/Pred/Dex
POTASSIUM Potassium levels can indicate in which general direction the body’s pH is going. Increased levels of potassium are indicative of acidosis while decreased levels are indicative of alkalosis. With chronic potassium elevation one has to consider immunodepression and/or inflammation. Increased Decreased Adrenal Hypofunction Adrenal Hyperfunction Asthma, Emphysema Diuretics; Diarrhea] Renal Dysfunction Hypertension Use of Synthetic steroids/Pred/Dex
CHLORIDES Sodium, potassium and chloride ions surround the cell plasma membrane. Comparing the measurements of these three ions one can get general information on the basic functioning of the kidney and the relationship of the water and the earth elements. Generally, elevated chlorides will represent Heat and decreased chlorides will represent Deficiency within the water elements.
Increased Decreased CO2 deficiency CO2 excess Adrenal Hyperfunction Adrenal Hypofunction Hyperaparathyroidism Respiratory distress Dehydration Diabetes Salicylate toxicity Renal Dysfunction
BLOOD UREA NITROGEN (BUN) Urea is formed almost entirely by the liver from protein metabolism in the tissues. The rate of urea production is accelerated by a diet high in animal proteins and chronic tissue damage. It is believed that more than 50% of the kidney must be destroyed before serum urea levels are significantly elevated. Elevated BUN with normal creatinine usually signals a non-renal cause for uremia.
CREATININE Creatinine clearance is a good measurement of glomerular function. It measures the rate of excretion by the kidneys of metabolically produced creatinine. Blood Creatinine rises when renal function declines. With severe renal impairment, urea levels continue to climb, but creatinine values plateau.
Increased Decreased Reduced blood flow to kidney Not significant Urethral obstruction/stones Shock, Blood Loss, Dehydration, Burns Muscle trauma; Flu; Late pregnancy
URIC ACID Uric Acid is the chief end product of purine metabolism. Purines are constituents of nucleic acids. Most uric acid is synthesized in the liver, in a reaction requiring the enzyme xanthine oxidase. Uric acid travels through the blood to the kidneys, where filtration, absorption and secretion will affect uric acid excretion. Organ meats, legumes and yeast are especially high in purines. Uremia can be described as symptoms and physical abnormalities that result from the kidneys’ failure to remove nitrogenous waste products normally excreted in the urine. The toxic effects of uremia affect virtually all human organs. The most common symptoms are high blood pressure, swelling (edema) of the ankles, nausea, vomiting and weight loss. Anemia is almost always present because high blood levels of urea, one of the nitrogenous substances, shortens the life span of red blood cells. Other symptoms may include irritation of the heart sac (pericarditis), bleeding, muscle twitches and itching (pruritus). In the later stages, uremia causes agitation alternating with stupor, convulsions, coma, and ultimately death. Analysis of blood chemistries show elevated levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid, phosphorus and hydrogen ion.
PROGESTERONE Progesterone is secreted by the corpus luteum of the ovaries and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex in both males and females. It prepares the endometrium to received a fertilized ovum and is necessary for the maintenance of early pregnancy. Increased Decreased Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy Ovarian Tumor/Hypofunction Pregnancy Anterior Pituitary Hypofunction (TSH)
FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE (FSH) The ovary secretes estrogens and progesterone under the influence of FSH, which is controlled by hypothalamic releasing factors and stimulated by the pituitary hormones. Estrogens are secreted by ovarian follicular cells in the first half of the menstrual cycle, and by the corpus luteum during the luteal phase and pregnancy.
Increased Decreased Menopause/Post Menopause Anterior Pituitary Hypofx. (TSH) Ovarian Tumour LUTEINIZING HORMONE (LH) LH and FSH control the function of the hormones of the ovaries and testis. High LH levels inhibit estrogen and stimulate progesterone secretion.
The liver contains complex parenchymal cells which perform multiple diverse functions essential to life. Hepatocytes have the unique ability to regenerate as well as the capacity to respond to increased metabolic demands. The liver directly receives, processes and stores materials absorbed from the digestive tract such as amino acids, carbohydrates, fatty acids, cholesterol and vitamins and is able to release metabolites of these compounds on demand. The liver synthesizes plasma proteins such as albumin, globulin, clotting factors and transport proteins. These factors influence homeostasis, since binding proteins modulate the circulating total concentrations of calcium and magnesium while albumin concentrations regulate osmotic pressure and thus influence the fluid dynamics between the blood and the tissues. The liver is the main organ of detoxification and is the site of metabolic conversion of endogenous and exogenous compounds. The liver also synthesizes bile acids from cholesterol and secretes these compounds from the hepatocytes into the intestine. This generates bile flow and facilitates the emulsification and absorption of fats. The liver is also a major site of catabolism of thyroid, steroid and other hormones. The liver helps to regulate plasma hormone levels. Last, but not least, the liver responds to multiple hormonal and neural stimuli to regulate the blood glucose concentration and contributes to steadying the body’s immune system. The liver is truly THE GENERAL.
LACTIC DEHYDROGENASE (LDH) LDH is found in the blood as well as in all tissues. It represents a group of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. LDH is an enzyme which assists in the conversion of Pyruvate (pyruvic acid) to lactate or lactic acid in the anaerobic glycolysis of glucose. Lactic acid can be reconverted to pyruvate with the enzymatic assistance of LDH, enter into the mitochondrion and be transformed to ATP for cellular energy. LDH is widely distributed with high concentrations in the heart, musculoskeletal system, liver, kidney, brain and red blood cells. The measurement of total LDH is therefore a non-specific index of cellular damage.
There are laboratories which do an electrophoresis process which will assess the 5 different isoenzymes of LDH #1 – measures heart tissue damage – 10 – 34% of total LDH #2 – measures heart, lymph and erythrocyte damage – 3 - 45% of total LDH #3 – measures pulmonary, spleen, adrenal and kidney – 13 – 27% of total LDH #4 – measures hepatic and prostate and uterus – 2 – 14% of total LDH #5 – measures hepatic tissue damage – 3 – 15% of total LDH
NOTES ABOUT LDH ISOENZYMES: LDH Isoenzyme #1 – with an infection and an elevation of total WBC this will be elevated. LDH Isoenzyme #1 – with a decreased TSH (associated with thyroid medication) will be mildly elevated (fire/thyroid correlation) LDH Isoenzyme #5 A lowered LDH #5 may also be indicative of toxic metal poisoning.
LDH INCREASED IN: Any increase in LDH is an implication that there is some tissue damage somewhere in the body. If one chooses to do an electrophoresis Isoenzyme test one can determine which tissue is undergoing a destructive process.
LDH DECREASED IN: Sometimes with Hypoglycemia
Generally it is believed that increased LDH is representative of excessive acidity and decreased LDH is representative of excessive alkalinity.
TOTAL PROTEIN All cells manufacture proteins, different proteins characterizing different cell types. All human proteins are constructed from a mere 20 amino acids, but variations in chain length, amino acid sequence and incorporated constituents combine to make possible an almost infinite number of different protein molecules. Amino acids enter the body from dietary sources. These amino acids are rapidly distributed to tissue cells, which promptly incorporate them into proteins. Protein synthesis and degradation occur continuously, at a rate of approximately 400g. daily. Each day about 20-30g of protein is irreversibly degraded; this is the minimum amount of protein that must be ingested to maintain a metabolic nitrogen balance.
ALBUMIN A globular protein which contributes to approximately 60% of the total plasma proteins. It is produced in the liver and is dependent on the intake of amino acids. Albumin binds Bilirubin, free fatty acids and transports and stores numerous metabolic constituents such as thyroxine, cortisol, calcium, magnesium and amino acids. Albumin is responsible for about 80% of the colloid-osmotic pressure between blood and tissue fluids. When albumin is diminished, osmotic pressure is disturbed. A low albumin combined with elevated SGPT and GGTP indicates significant liver dysfunction.
GLOBULIN A globulin is a protein that is insoluble in pure water, in contrast to an albumin which is soluble. Human blood serum contains several globulins that differ in molecular size, amino acid composition, solubility. Total serum globulin increases during recovery from infection. Such beta-globulins as transferring transport iron, heme, and less often, copper and zinc throughout the body.
SERUM GLUTAMIC OXALOACETIC (SGOT) TRANSAMINASEASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE (AST) SGOT is an enzyme found in the cytoplasm of liver, kidney, myocardial and skeletal muscle cells. Following in injury, infection, inflammation, concentrations of SGOT will > within 10 hours. Within 4-6 days, SGOT levels should resume normal levels. SGOT measurements give information on liver/heart relationship.
SERUM GLUTAMIC PYRUVIC TRANSAMINANSEALANINE (SGPT) AMINOTRANSVERASE (ALT) Most concentrated in the liver and in lesser amounts in the kidney, heart and skeletal system. Increased exercise can increase SGOT while SGPT will remain stable. SGPT is principally used to measure liver damage. SGPT is more reliable to measure chronic cellular damage whereas SGOT is more sensitive to acute damage. An individual with viral hepatitis will have a considerably higher SGPT/SGOT than one who has recently had an MI or cancer. (This is in general a measurement of heat and/or stagnation). When using SGPT to dx. Gallbladder problems, remember to test urine and Bilirubin. Often SGPT and SGOT will be normal yet the GGTP will be elevated in gallbladder dx.
ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE A high content of alkaline phosphatase is found in the intestinal mucosa, live and bone. An elevation of Alk. Phos. is found in both hepatic dysfunction and osteoblastic bone lesions. It is therefore useful in determining relationship between water and wood. An elevated Alk. Phos. in children is most often due to excessive bone growth activity. It is most commonly elevated in Liver Stagnation with biliary tract congestion. Exceedingly low levels of Alk. Phos. are most commonly found in patients with depressed zinc levels. Patients with liver/gallbladder stagnation/obstruction often have higher serum Alk. Phos. than the individual with hepatocellular disorders such as simple Liver Heat. Steroidal drugs and birth control pills will often increase Alk. Phos.
Increased Decreased Biliary/liver congestion (SGPT, GGTP) Hypothyroidism; Hypoparathyroidism Hepatitis; Mono; Parasites (EOS) Digestive Incompetence (protein/fat) Herpes Zoster; Hyperthyroidism Zinc Deficiency; Folic Acid Anemia Osteoporosis; Rheumatoid Arthritis GAMMA GLUTAMYL TRANSPEPTIDE (GGPT) GGPT is often the first enzyme to be elevated with liver dysfunction. The elevation continues for as long as hepatic cellular damage persists. It is a sensitive indicator of biliary obstruction. It is interesting to note that elevated Bilirubin in the urine will be evident long before SGOT , SGPT or Alk. Phosphatase become elevated. GGPT is often high with severe alcoholism and correlates with six or more alcoholic drinks daily.
Increased Decreased Biliary Obstruction; Alcoholism (SGOT;SGPT) not significant
BILIARY OBSTRUCTION Increased Decreased GGPT; SGPT; SGOT; Alk. Phos.; WBC Vitamin A & K levels Bilirubin; Triglycerides; Cholesterol; LDH
TOTAL BILIRUBIN Bilirubin is the end product of the breakdown of hemoglobin by the liver, spleen and bone marrow. The liver transforms Bilirubin to a form that is then excreted through the biliary system or the kidneys. An increase in Bilirubin is responsible for various types of jaundice. Bilirubin helps to rule biliary obstruction in or out. When direct Bilirubin is simultaneously elevated with GGTP and SGPT biliary obstruction is likely. Total Bilirubin is a combination of direct and indirect Bilirubin.
Increased Decreased Hepatitis; Mononucleosis Iron Anemia Liver/Biliary Dysfunction
TRIGLYCERIDES Triglycerides are esters of glycerol and fatty acids. Elevated triglycerides will often indicate poor utilization of fatty acids. Decreased triglycerides will indicate poor release of fatty acids. Typically, when the triglycerides are elevated there is primarily Damp Heat in the Spleen. When cholesterol is elevated there is more commonly Liver Stagnation.
Increased Decreased Liver-Biliary dysfunction Auto immune dysfunction Protein malnutrition Free Radical Pathology
FIRE: HEART/PERICARDIUM/SMALL INTESTINE
SEDIMENTATION RATE The Sedimentation Rate helps to determine inflammation and/or destruction within a disease process. It helps in following the course of an established condition and also signals the onset of inflammation. Fibrogen increases the Sed. Rate, while an increase in albumin decreases the Sed. Rate. The liver is the seat of albumin synthesis. A damaged liver, therefore, can contribute to low albumin with a corresponding increased Sed. Rate.
Increased Decreased Inflammation Not significant
THYROID Thyroid Hormones Control of oxygen consumption is the most conspicuous biologic effect of the thyroid hormones, a physiologic variable measured in simplest fashion by the basal metabolic rate. Thyroid hormones also influence carbohydrate and protein metabolism, and the mobilization of electrolytes, and the conversion of carotene to vitamin A. (wood/fire). Although the mechanism is not fully apparent, thyroid hormones are essential for development of the CNS and the thyroid deficient infant suffers irreversible mental damage. The thyroid deficient adult may have slowed deep tendon reflexes. Thyroid hormones affect synthesis and metabolism of fats. Abnormalities within the endocrine system may be reflected in altered lipid levels. In hyperthyroidism, degradation and excretion increase more than synthesis, resulting in low levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. Hypothyroidism slows catabolism more than it affects synthesis, and hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Hypothyroidism secondary to pituitary failure, however does not cause lipids to rise. In an obviously hyypothyroid patient, a normal serum cholesterol level should direct attention to the pituitary. (Is the problem wood or water). Cholesterol levels will often drop within 3 weeks after thyroid medication.
The thyroid gland synthesizes its hormones from iodine and the essential amino acid tyrosine. Most of the body's iodine enters through the alimentary tract as iodide, but under certain circumstances, the lungs and skin may be portals of entry. Of the iodine that enters the body, approximately one third enters the thyroid gland and two thirds leaves the body in urine.
Enzymes oxidize iodide to organic iodine, which is incorporated into monoiodotyrosine and diiodotyrosine. These one and two iodine containing compounds are building blocks for the active thyroid hormones T4 which has four iodine molecules, and triiodothyronine T3, which has three.
T-3 UPTAKE Useful to dx. Hyperthyroidism.
Increased Decreased Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism; Pregnancy Protein Malnutrition Estrogens/Anti-Ovulatory Drugs Renal Dysfunction Triiodothyronine Rx. for Hypothyroidism Propylthioouracil Rx. for Hyperthyroidism
T-4 THYROXINE T-4 is a product of the thyroid follicular cell. It influences the entire body's metabolism. In primary hypothyroidism T-4 levels are usually low. In many cases of sub-clinical hypothyroidism (chk. Daily temperature), T-4 levels may be low normal.
THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE (TSH) TSH is secreted from the pituitary gland. It regulates the uptake of iodine as well as the synthesis and secretion of the thyroid hormones. TSH is influenced by hypothalamic stimulation as well as T4 concentration.
HYPERTHYROIDISM Increased Decreased T4, T3 Uptake; Glucose; BUN Basophils; Albumin; Calcium Alkaline Phos; Eosinophils Total Protein; HCT; HGB; Iron Magnesium; Cholesterol; Triglycerides
HYPOTHYROIDISM Increased Decreased LDH, Calcium, Magnesium T3 Uptake; T4; HCT; HGB; Iron Basophils; Cholesterol; Triglycerides Sodium
Pituitary/Hypothalmus The thyroid produces hormones upon stimulation by the pituitary hormone variously called thyrotropin or thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Pituitary production of TSH (Kidney energy) follows stimulation by a hypothalamic protein called thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), which responds to activity levels of T3 and T4 in the blood passing through the hypothalamus. When hormone levels are low TRH provokes TSH secretion, which then accelerates all aspects of thyroidal iodine metabolism and hormone production.
GLUCOSE This test is a useful indicator of glucose metabolism disorders. Glucose represents the synthesis of carbohydrates and is the form in which carbohydrate is supplied to the cell from body fluids. In other words, glucose is the essence (yin) of carbohydrate metabolism. Insulin, of particular importance in the transport of glucose into the fat cell, lowers serum glucose while adrenal and pituitary hormones tend to elevate it through their effects on the liver. The thyroid gland, on the other hand, by helping with the selective activity of the intestinal tract for sugar, increases blood sugar if it is overactive and decreases blood sugar if it is under-active. Since brain cells cannot derive energy from anaerobic metabolism of glucose, they are most vulnerable to hypoglycemia (enter – brain fog”)
Glucose Increased Diabetes Damp Heat in Spleen; Liv. Stag. Acute/Chronic Pancreatitis Damp Heat in Spleen Digestive Inflammation Damp Heat in Spleen Digestive Inflammation Damp heat in Spleen Hyperthyroidism Damp Heat in Spleen; Liv. Stag. Pregnancy Damp Heat in Spleen Adrenal Cortical Hyperfunction Kidney Yang Def Use of synthetic steroids/Pred/Dex Chronic Renal Dysfunction Damp Heat in Kidney Cardiac Dysfunction Damp Heat in Heart
It is interesting to note that with diabetes or pre-diabetic condition, the serum triglycerides will often be higher than the serum cholesterol. In Oriental Medicine this would relate to the predominant problem being Damp Heat in the Spleen as opposed to “pure” Liver Stagnation.
Increased Decreased Growth Hormone^ Glucose < Insulin^ LDH – normal to < A hypoglycemic may display any or all of the following symptoms: fatigue, dizziness, headache, irritability, depression, anxiety, tightness in the chest, sweet cravings, confusion, night sweats, weakness in the legs, nervous habits, insomnia and an assortment of pains. These symptoms relate to various syndromes, the most obvious being Spleen Qi Xu, Kid. Qi Xu and Liver Stag.
NOTATIONS A low normal glucose combined with a low normal LDH is reason to suspect hypoglycemia. In Oriental Medicine this would be associated with Spleen Qi Xu. Hypochlorhydria (St. Def.) and biliary stasis (Liver Stagnation) are prominent syndromes in most cases of hypoglycemia. Low blood pressure (Kid. Qi Xu) is also common amongst hypoglycemics. With blood sugar problems, a craving for sweets is common. Headaches are commonly associated with chronic low glucose: A flat glucose curve is common with learning disabilities and “personality disorders” or disturbed Shen. Heavy metals may also be the culprit here. Food allergies may often cause blood sugar fluctuations. If LDH and glucose are low and such symptoms as hypochlorhydria, (Sp. Qi Xu) hypotension and adrenal fatigue, (Kid. Qi Xu); and acidic urine and saliva (Stagnation) one must rule our food allergies. Avoidance of allergens, simple sugars is a must.
METAL: LUNG/LARGE INTESTINE
CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) In the combustion of food, oxygen is used and carbon dioxide is given off. The rate of oxygen consumption indicates the energy expenditure of an organism, or its metabolic rate. The metabolic rate of any given animal at any given time is highly variable and is influenced by many diverse factors, including amount of muscular activity; quality of diet; presence or absence of digestion, lactation or pregnancy; time of day or year; period of the menstrual cycle and emotional state. Although most CO@ is lost through the lungs, some is converted to bicarbonate. This bicarbonate is part of the alkaline reserve available for neutralization of acids. Arterial blood has a lower total CO2 than venous blood.
TOTAL IRON Iron is largely absorbed across the mucosa of the duodenum and proximal jejunum. Gastric juice plays an important but not thoroughly understood role in promoting absorption. The low pH of gastric juice makes iron more available from iron-rich foods.
CALCIUM Calcium is absorbed from the upper part of the small intestine. Absorption depends upon the relative acidity of the intestinal contents and the amount of phosphate present. Calcium absorption is influenced by parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and Vitamin D.
PHOSPHOROUS Phosphorous plays an important role in the hemostasis of calcium and in reactions involving carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. The chemical energy of the body is stored in “high energy phosphate: compounds. Calcium and phosphorous dynamics are largely regulated by the effects of parathyroid hormone on bone and on urinary excretion and the effects of vitamin D metabolites on intestinal absorption and on bone. Parathyroid hormone causes increased resorption of both calcium and phosphorous from bone; it suppresses urinary calcium, causing serum calcium levels to rise and serum phosphate levels to fall. Vitamin D stimulates absorption of calcium and phosphorous from intestinal contents, and accelerates the turnover of both minerals in the bone.